Rasta History
Rasta History

  • Rastafarianism

    Rastafari is a Abyssinian Based Religious Movement of Jamaican origin proclaiming righteously that blacks are the chosen people of God, that Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia was the Messiah, and that black people will eventually return to their Motherland - the continent of Africa. Rastafarians number some one million official adherents to faith (Figure released in 2009). The faith is considered an Abrahamic religion, and noted to be a new faith movement. There are three main sects of Rastafari, which include the officiated - Bobo Ashanti, Nyahbinghi and Twelve Tribes of Israel - each holding unique viewpoints on life and Selassie's impactful holiness. The largest population of Rastafarians reside in Jamaica. Rastafari is also considerably a New Social Movement, impacting social beliefs, lifestyle and cultures of Europeans, Asians, Africans, Canadians, Australians and Americans alike. In Latin America, the riddims of Rastafari have led to a revolution of sound - whereby Reggaeton was established in the mid-2000's.

    According to one report from the Royal History Museum of Scotland and Wales, Rastafarians were used by British Naval Vessels and grew their hair long whilst residing in ships heading North Eastward from Nova Scotia and Jamaica after assisting British War Efforts against Rebel Slave Holding Americans and Slave Purchasing Pirates of France, Portugal, Spain, Corsica, Sardinia, Crete, and Malta quite ordainmently subsequent to the Abolition Acts of 1807. Rastafarian Culture has left an indelible mark on popular culture, including consumption routines, popular consumables, trending outfits, and nomenclature. As Rastafarians adapt to the modern society, one can definitively identify the efficacious societal regard for their culture, beliefs, and viewpoints. Rastafarians in their protest are growing 37,000 Acres of High Grade Ganja on Regulated Cannabis Fields in the Maroon Towns of Jamaica. This programme may be in the process of being tampered with as planes have been spraying the fields with unknown chemicals to poison Prince Harry and King William, since they drink Cannabis infused tea from Westmoreland on a daily basis. The Royal Sentry from Algeria identified this two days ago and 3 years ago respectively.

    Comprehending the Slave Trade

    Osu Castle, also known as Fort Christiansborg or simply the Castle, is a castle located in Osu, Accra, Ghana on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean's Gulf of Guinea. The first substantial fort was built by Denmark-Norway in the 1660s, though the castle has changed hands between Denmark-Norway, Portugal, the Akwamu, Britain, and finally post-Independence Ghana, and was rebuilt numerous times. For most of the castle's history, it has been the seat of government in Ghana with some interruptions, the latest when the John Kufuor administration moved the seat of government to Golden Jubilee House after 6 January 2009, which was quickly reversed by the incoming John Atta Mills administration. It also serves as the place where the late president of Ghana John Atta Mills is buried; in a bird sanctuary, overlooking the Atlantic Ocean.

    The area was first occupied in 1550 by the Portuguese, though in the 17th-century Portuguese influence diminished. The area came under the control of Sweden in the 1650s, led by the Dutch trader Henry Caerlof. In 1660, control passed to the Netherlands but it was soon lost to Denmark-Norway. In 1657, the efforts to conquer the forts of slavery occurred. In its early life, the castle was primarily used in the gold and ivory trade, but under Dano-Norwegian control it increasingly dealt with slaves.

    Osu Castle was located close to two other forts. Danes and Swedes in specific developed a peace programme at Christianbourgh Castle after deploying their meaningful flags in the Federate Tribal Area of Ghana. This programme exists into modern day, after Methodists and Protestants aligned with Ghanaians / Blacks ended Slavery. The agreements of Christianbourgh form the foundation of the Peace Palace at The Hague. The Peace Palace at the Hague and the International Court of Justice as well as the International Criminal Court at The Hague are actively combating the efforts of Genocidal Parties.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    1933

    Howell, began his preaching regarding Rastafari Makonnen as early as 1931. Moreover, as he gained a stronger following, in 1933 he established an official Sect of his Anglican Respite of the Church. As Marcus Garvey's efforts and movements did not fail, a momentum gathered into fruition required for the founding of Rastafari's followers to work for their passion and beliefs. Leonard P. Howell, whom was born in 1898 in the Clarendon Region of Jamaica, worked as Great Leader of the Rastafarian Methodist Sect, encouraging Blacks to Repatriate to Africa, particularly to Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and other nations where they could easily survive. This righteous and forthright effort, through its strategic nature, gained strident momentum and would decisively ensure the progress of African Economies and the Economies of the African Diaspora. The interactive nature of such economies should be noted in this case, as this was identified by Howell and other business leaders in Jamaica at the time. In most important regard, since Blacks were being deprived of their rights to participate in Economies on equal terms, they must establish their own niche market economies of Scale and work to ensure progress within their communities. In America, as Blacks were not afforded full, equitable rights - they must establish their own superiority and equitable means to justice by developing economies of scale and micro-economies in other nations where Blacks were provided equal rights and justice.

    This marked the first uniting of Rastafarians and it paved the way for the future of the movement, bringing hope of repatriation with Africa and freedom for the black race.

    Further Notes on Slave Castles

    In 1679 or 1680, the fort's Greek assistant commander incited a mutiny to murder the commander. Shortly after that, a Portuguese ship commanded by Julião de Campos Barreto visited the fort and agreed to purchase it. The fort was named Fort São Francisco Xavier after the Catholic missionary Francis Xavier. The Portuguese built a chapel and raised the bastions by three feet. The fort was abandoned on 29 August 1682 after the garrison mutinied and it became clear that Portuguese traders could not compete with the other Gold Coast powers. Danish forces returned in February 1683 after purchasing the fort back from the Portuguese. In 1685, Fort Christiansborg became the capital of the Gold Coast of Denmark-Norway, taking over from Fort Frederiksborg.

    The Akwamu ethnic group occupied the fort in 1693 after overpowering the occupants (who were reduced by death and disease) while disguised as merchants. Asamani, the Akwamu leader, occupied the fort for a year, trading with merchants from many nations. In 1694, Assameni sold the fort back to Denmark-Norway for 50 marks of gold (400 troy ounces, worth £200,000 to £250,000 in 2008) but retained the keys, which are still in the ethnic group's possession to this day. The early 18th century was not kind to the fort, and in 1722 the English reported it to be in disrepair. Extensions were made later that century, however, and structural improvements were made in 1824. The additional store rooms, garrison quarters, platforms, bastions and houses resulted in the castle being four times the size of the original fort. In the 1770s, the Danes at Osu became involved in a conflict with Dutch-controlled Accra.

    In 1850, the British bought all of Denmark's Gold Coast possessions for £10,000 (between £850,000 and £1.5m in 2007), including Fort Christiansborg. Denmark had been considering selling these outposts for some time. After the slave trade had been abolished they were expensive to run and brought little benefit. Britain experienced the same problems, but was keen to prevent illegal slave trading and to prevent France or Belgium strengthening in the area. An 1862, earthquake destroyed most of the upper floors, which were rebuilt in wood. Later that century, the castle became the seat of the colonial government. In 1950, the wooden upper floors were rebuilt according to the original Danish plans. In 1957, when Ghana became independent, with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, the fort became Government House, the residence of the Governor-General. When Ghana became a republic in 1960, it became the residence of Ghana's first president, Kwame Nkrumah.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Modern Rastafarian beliefs

    From the 1930s until the mid 1970s most Rastafarians accepted the traditional Rastafari beliefs.

    But in 1973 Joseph Owens published a more modern approach to Rastafari beliefs. In 1991 Michael N. Jagessar revised Owens's ideas, devising his own systematic approach to Rastafari theology and providing an insight into the changes in the group's beliefs.

    The key ideas in contemporary Rastafari are found within:

    The humanity of God and the divinity of man, which refers to the importance of Haile Selassie who is perceived by Rastafarians as a living God. Likewise it emphasises the concept of God revealing himself to his followers through his humanity. As is known by Rastafari's faithful, God is found within every man. Rastafarians believe that God makes himself known through the humanity that humankind espouses to attain via cooperative civilization. Salvation for Rastafarians is an earthly idea, rather than heavenly. Human nature is very important to Rastafarians and they should preserve and protect it. Speech is very important to Rastafarians, as it enables the presence and power of God to be felt. Sin is both personal and corporate. This means organisations such as the International Monetary Fund are responsible for Jamaica's fiscal situation, and that oppression is in part influenced by them. This corresponds to the nearness of judgement for Rastafarians when they will be given greater recognition. Rastafarians are the chosen people of God and are on earth to promote his power and peacefulness.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Bobo Shanti (Bobo Shanti Congress or Ethiopia Black International Congress)

    The Bobo Shanti movement was founded in 1958 in Jamaica, by Prince Emmanuel Charles Edwards, considered by many to be the black Christ. Prince Emmanuel, Marcus Garvey and Haile Selassie are regarded as part of a holy trinity. Selassie is regarded as King or God, Garvey is perceived to be a prophet and Emmanuel a High Priest. The group can now be found in the Bahamas, Virgin Islands, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Trinidad. Bobo Shanti wear brightly coloured turbans and long flowing robes. Women in Bobo Shanti must cover their arms and legs. Bobo Shanti members live apart from society. Their base is in Bull Bay, Jamaica. They do not accept the laws and principles of Jamaican society. Elements of their daily life reflect Old Testament Jewish Mosaic Law:

    Honouring the Sabbath, from sundown on Friday. During the Sabbath the use of salt and oil is avoided and no work can be carried out. Bobo Shanti fly their flag in a different way to other Rasta groups. They fly the Red, Gold and Green flag with Red at the top, while other groups fly it the other way up. The Bobo Shanti do smoke marijuana, but not in public, because it is a spiritual rite only to be carried out during periods of worship. The Bobo Shanti movement is concerned with fulfilling Marcus Garvey's 'Back to Africa' campaign, reuniting Africans with their homeland and abandoning contact with Western society. Some Bobo Shanti feel black people should be given monetary rewards for the slavery they have endured.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    The Nyahbinghi Order

    Nyahbinghi is the oldest of all the Rastafarian subgroups. Nyahbinghi attempts to keep the link between Rastafarian faith and African heritage close. The group is named after Queen Nyahbinghi who ruled Uganda in the 19th Century and helped reduce the influence of colonial powers. The name Nyahbinghi is believed to mean 'Death to all Oppressors'. The focus of this group is on the veneration of Haile Selassie, who is regarded by them as the embodiment of God. Ethiopia is very important to the sect, which emphasises the repatriation of blacks to Africa. The Nyahbinghi regard water, air and fire as representations of the elements of life. Fire is believed to represent the wrath of Jah pouring down on Babylon. Nyahbinghi eat organic produce only, such as vegetables, fruits, herbs and barks, and avoid the consumption of salt. Nyahbinghi take part in regular Groundations, often called Nyahbinghi Groundations. The word 'groundation' means affirmation of life through earth. The importance of Ethiopia to Nyahbinghi:
    The flag tends to have the colour green first. The Nyahbinghi flag also features a lion in the centre, reflecting the Lion of Judah - Haile Selassie I. Nyahbinghi observe the Ethiopian Sabbath, Tuesday. Nyahbinghi try to use the Ethiopian language, Amharic.

    From Gosport, Dunmore conducted governmental affairs and assembled ships and troops to fight the disgruntled colonials in the lower Chesapeake region. When the opportunity arose, he intended to attack Virginia’s forces and destroy them. Dunmore’s chance to fully engage the patriots came after a hurricane struck Hampton Roads in early September. The hurricane put HMS Mercury under Captain John MacCartney on its broadside in front of Norfolk, where an article in Pinkney’s Virginia Gazette urged Virginians to seize the opportunity and burn the ship, calling her “the terror of Norfolk and a refuge to our slaves.” A British ship’s tender (dinghy) named the Liberty also blew ashore during the storm, forcing the captain of the HMS Otter, Matthew Squire, and a runaway slave to leave the dingy in Hampton and make their way via canoe to the Otter. When colonials found the Liberty, they seized its supplies and burned it to the waterline in retaliation for British seizures of food, supplies, and livestock.

    Provisioning detail to his Ethiopian Regiments, former slaves were given posit to ensure their own freedom and the freedom of their Captain. 'As Americans, Negroes were doubtless stirred, too, by the high sounding hoalds of the Revolution. In breaking with the mother country, the leaders of the new nation had invoked the spirit of liberty, asseting that war was being waged to extend the boundaries of human freedom', as documented by the Declarations of Human Rights in the Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Source:[The Negro in the Making of America written by Benjamin Quarles] / Ajara (Arabic) : To reward, pay wages, hire / Ista'jara : To Hire, Employ

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Cannabis

    Marijuana has been growing in the West Indies since ancient times. The usage of marijuana in Reggae Music is directly attributed to the surge of Rastafarian Culture in the West Indies since the post-colonial political independence of Jamaica from the United Kingdom. Rastafarians use the "holy herb" of marijuana to soothe themselves from the pain and strife of Babylon (The Western System of Oppression). The sociological effects of oppression are extensive, and it is widely believed that the usage of marijuana actually cures these psychological issues. According to recent scientific research, the usage of marijuana in the Rastafarian faith is actually beneficial in an array of means.

    Marijuana seeds when refined into cold pressed oil can be used in food consumption. Also, there are many cereals that include vital nutrients of which marijuana seeds can supplement. The THCΔ9 in specific breeds of Cannabis Indica, in proper refined form has been noted to be used in conjunction with other therapies to treat various nervous system conditions, including anxiety. Moreover, Cannabis Sativa in refined forms has been noted by doctors, in states that have administrative codes that allow for controlled refined-marijuana consumption, to treat specific forms of non-clinical depression, when combined with traditional healing therapies such as Cognitive Behavioral therapy. Often times, medical professionals who operate utilizing theories of chemical recession are not aware of the molecular benefits of the highly adaptive substance of medical marijuana. We are noting such findings and plan to obtain research data from professionals whom are aware of the array of beneficial uses of the well evolved and adaptively engineered herbal plant.

    Living a wholesome, meaningful and moral life can assure one will reach many points of satisfaction. It has been noted that marijuana if consumed improperly combined with poor lifestyle choices can lead to further harm. It is key to study the livity espoused and denoted by Rastafarians, whom comprise a powerful, increasingly influential, and innovative denomination of the Christian Gentile faith. Smoking copious amounts of herb will not solve one's problems, notwithstanding - education and true insight into guidance can lead one to develop into a better existence on earth. Indeed, Rastafarians of all races have found in God Jah Rastafari a path to enjoy life on earth, whilst their compounding uniform adjustments can lead them to a better means. It is known in the ordainment of earth, that balance is key to development and order. The axioms of Ptahotep and Imhotep demonstrate an evident nature of being and existence. In studying ancient theology - literature - history, it is apparent that the patterns of mankind appear to remain constant, consistent, and are quite pervasive in many means.

    Rastafarians have been promoting change in marijuana legislation and we are now seeing that Medical Marijuana is becoming more commonly acceptable and LEGAL in the USA and throughout many regions where Rasta culture is heavily influential. Marijuana has many alternative names in Rastafarian Culture including "Ganja", "The Holy Weed", "Ancients", "Knocka Knocka", and "Greens". In recent years, we have seen the Medical Marijuana Legalization Movement gain traction in many regards. Giving this strength, we are concerned regarding Cartels influencing the Dispensary Business. According to one record at the NORML Website, the Penalty for Trafficking of Cannabis totaling $20,000,000 USD per year renders the Death Penalty in construence with laws associated with RICO and the Patriot Act. Noticably, the totality of the medical benefits of Medical Marijuana is currently being realized as Medical Cannabis is dispensed legally and rightfully by caregiving charities without Mafia Influence in specific USA states whereby Cannabis Dispensation is legal. In many nations this process is normative, particularly in liberalized trade regime nations. New medicines are being developed based on the molecules of cannabis, which treat various ailments. More importantly, we see a movement towards the development of natural organic medicines globally in established first world economies, given the harmful side effects of statically reacting, synthetically generated, chemical-based molecular substances.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    The history of Rastafari begins with the colonisation of Africa by Europeans and the horrific processes of the transatlantic slave trade. Africa is known as Alkibulan, Itiopia, or Ifriqiya to followers of Rastafari faith. The European powers took many Africans as slaves, and the people of Africa were divided up and sent into exile as captives throughout the world. The areas of captivity became known as 'Babylon'. For Africans this exile marked the wholesale suppression of their physical freedom, personal safety, belief systems, culture, and dignity by the European imperialists. However, Rastafarians believe that the systematic subjegation of Africans in 'Babylon' is ending and that soon they will all return to Ethiopia - Africa, both physically and spiritually - similar to the return of Abrahamic peoples out of exile - as in the Old Testament, Biblical lore.

    1930 - The Rastafari movement began in Jamaica during the 1930's following a prophecy made by Marcus Garvey, a black political leader. Garvey led an organisation known as the Universal Negro Improvement Association {UNIA), whose intention was to unify blacks with their land of origin as well at to improve their plight throughout the African Diaspora. Garvey preached "Look to Africa where a black king shall be crowned, he shall be your Redeemer." This statement became the foundation of the Rastafari movement. The prophecy was rapidly followed by the crowning of Emperor Haile Selassie I in Ethiopia. Rastafarians see this as the fulfilment of Garvey's prophecy. The religion takes its name from Haile Selassie's original name. Haile Selassie is therefore regarded by Rastafarians as the Black Messiah, Jah Rastafari. He is a figure of salvation and it's believed he will redeem blacks from white suppressors, reuniting them with their homeland, Africa. In 1935 the first branch of Rastafari is believed to have been established in Jamaica in 1935 by Leonard P. Howell. Howell preached the divinity of Haile Selassie. He explained that all blacks would gain the superiority over whites that had always been intended for them. Howell's action encouraged others to help develop and spread the message of Rasta theology, and as E.E. Cashmore explains: All, in their own ways, added pieces to the jigsaw, and the whole picture came together in the mid 1950s when a series of congregations of rastas appeared at various departure points on Jamaica's shores, awaiting ships bound for Africa.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    1935 - The initialization and secularization of Rastafari is recorded to have occurred in Jamaica around the time of 1935 by Leonard P. Howell. Much is this history is unknown and forgotten to the New Age Rastafarians, yet we are in the process of documenting such paths of faith.

    Howell and his Rastafarian Sect preached the divinity of Haile Selassie as the Second Coming of Christ or the Chosen Entity. Through his following and mass, Howell explained that all blacks would gain the equality and even potentially superiority over whites, which notably - had always been intended for them given the paths of the righteous ones.

    Howell, whom was a great leader in the African Diaspora Community, commenced an active initiative to encourage others, particularly through Methodist Practice to help the development of the Black Community as Marcus Garvey had initiated and moreover, spread the message of Rastafarian Theology, and as E.E. Cashmore explains:

    All, in their own ways, added pieces to the jigsaw, and the whole picture came together in the mid 1950s when a series of congregations of rastas appeared at various departure points on Jamaica's shores, awaiting ships bound for Africa. E.E. Cashmore

    This marked the first uniting of Rastafarians and it paved the way for the future of the movement, bringing hope of repatriation with Africa and freedom for the black race.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Modern Rastafarian beliefs

    From the 1930s until the mid 1970s a wide variety of Rastafarian Sects were established. One noteworthy sect was that of the Florida based - Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church. The main members of the sect were apprehended and tried for operating a Cannabis Smuggling Joint Venture with radical elements of Jamaica's Military and Governance Establishment. The presence of this sect in the Rastafarian Lineage does not denote that all Rastafarians Traffick Cannabis, but most importantly - the ones that do are often brought to justice irregardless of State Based Legalization Routines for Cannabis Consumption.

    Rastafarians all mainly believe in the primitive supremacy of Jah Rastafari - Haile Selassie. With this belief surmounting their surrounding belief structures, many Rastafarians survive living simple lives in the hills of Tropical Nations. Rastafarians that live in America often find such conditions resentful, given America is the nexus of a large Genocidal Exploitation System which garnered much strength particularly during the height of the Internecine Empirical Wars of West Africa of the 1600's - 1700's. The slave trading efforts that were undoubtedly connected to such conflicts earned large resources for the British East India Company and Dutch East India Company - of which established formative monopolies to exploit Gold, Diamonds and other Minerals from Africa. In this process of exploitation the main usage of Officiated and Legally Sanctioned Civil Liberties Denial was extraction of wealth. Moroever, Africa and the Diaspora of Africans won their battle against such conditions whence it became economically impossible for the Slave Trading Piracy Organizations and Economic Exploitation Forces to manage such conditions associated with bonded servitude, bondage, slavery and race-based economic misfortune.

    The key ideas in contemporary Rastafari are found within:

    The humanity of God and the divinity of man, which refers to the importance of Haile Selassie who is perceived by Rastafarians as a living God. Likewise it emphasises the concept of God revealing himself to his followers through his humanity. As is known by Rastafari's faithful, God is found within every man. Rastafarians believe that God makes himself known through the humanity that humankind espouses to attain via cooperative civilization. Salvation for Rastafarians is an earthly idea, rather than heavenly. Human nature is very important to Rastafarians and they should preserve and protect it. Speech is very important to Rastafarians, as it enables the presence and power of God to be felt. Sin is both personal and corporate. This means organisations such as the International Monetary Fund are responsible for Jamaica's fiscal situation, and that oppression is in part influenced by them. This corresponds to the nearness of judgement for Rastafarians when they will be given greater recognition. Rastafarians are the chosen people of God and are on earth to promote his power and peacefulness.

    (Joseph Owens The Rastafarians of Jamaica, 1973 pp. 167-70 and Jagessar, JPIC and Rastafarians, 1991 pp. 15-17.)

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  • Apartheid and Emperor Selassie's Actions Against Oppression

    During Haile Selassie's visit to Jamaica he was threatened by the regime of Fidel Castro. This led to repeat assassination attempts and potentially to his ousting by way of connections that Cuba maintained in Italy or Sardinia.

    Reggae may have been used as a means of deposing Haile Selassie, as the forces of apartheid did scratch records of Roots Reggae Music as it entered townships like Soweto. The was the norm for the Fascist Regime of South Africa, to tamper with communications that urged for Freedom, Rights and Justice or any media that was considered a counterance to their regime. Apartheid South Africa, controlled economically by Dutch Diamond Traders and other European Economic Expatriate Groups, concentrated their efforts of exploitation by extracting wealth from former British and Portuguese Colonies, including Namibia, Angola, Mozambique, Rhodesia, Botswana, and Malawi.

    An important note of allegiances formed to counter Apartheid and Illegal Colonial Rule was that of a 1971 meeting between the Asantehene Prempeh, King of the Asante Peoples in Ghana and Royal Emperor Haile Selassie. In this meeting, which focused on the means to develop initiatives for the counteaction of Apartheid and mitigation of Apartheid's dangers to Africa's Development, many great agreements were reached. The efforts entailed included building of Kotoka Airport and other major international projects both in Ethiopia and Ghana, specifically the building of Highways and other vital infrastructure. The Great Kings Highway from Cape to Cairo was a project that was discussed at this vital meeting. Many predictions were foresighted, and the predictions proved to be fully effective in 1985 when Apartheid was officially provisioned as illegal by Australia. The Asantehene also confirmed with Haile Selassie that the trading of Gold with the Racist Forces of South Africa and Europe be rendered as outlawed. In a meeting during 1970 with the officials of Ghana's Regime, the Asantehene's Panoply, and Haile Selassie's Brigades, it was noted that individual sanctions be maintained against South Africa on the part of independent African States to ensure that sanctions in Europe could be passed. Both Egypt and Somalia agreed immediately as well as Botswana and Angola whom soon followed suit. In this case, delegations from Ghana and Ethiopia would lead other nations including Guinea Conakry to join their march of sanctions against the apartheid state of South Africa and Rhodesia.

    It is important to note that Selassie did not very often meet with the Traditional Chieftancies of West Africa, but kept his dealings with the Paramount Chieftancies as official with delegations sent to each Paramount Chieftancy to maintain negotations active for the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Although Nkrumah was noted as a strong leader in Africa, Selassie's efforts appeared to be longer lasting - given the African Union and Organization for African Unity established bases in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (Abysinnia).

    The Paramount Chieftancies did maintain many sets of agreements with Haile Selassie and in courtesy of the Organization of African Union. Paramount Chieftancies in Sierra Leone were particularly noteworthy in their regard for the Emperor and his plans. Much development in Sierra Leone was associated with the larger Pan-African Development Movement of the 1970's and 1980's, with the Civil War in that nation derailing development efforts for a period of not more the 2 decades.

    Repatriation efforts were agreed to in such meetings with a brief discussion of the Asantehene Prempeh and Royal Emperor Haile Selassie in 1968 determining an approach to ensure Blacks of the Diaspora would find a welcoming home in Africa, particularly in Abysinnia - Shashamanieland. In Ghana, Blacks of the Diaspora were welcomed in Urban Areas in did often do well in general business activities and interspersed economic exchange. Many families from Jamaica fared well under such conditions and despite Civil Rights being denied to them in the Americas their plights were exceptional in such regard during these times of hardship for common Blackfolk.

    Unfortunately, during 1974, His Imperial Majesty, Haile Selassie I was deposed by a Marxist revolution to his non-likeness. He died mysteriously the next year. The removal of a divine figure by an atheist secular political group was initially discouraging to Rastafarians, but noteworthy as kindred did not retrovert his actions as a the Second Coming of the Chosen Entity.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Ethiopian Calendar

    The Ethiopian calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical calendar for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Orthodox Tewahedo churches, Eastern Catholic Church and Coptic Orthodox Church. It is a sidereal calendar based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, and begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus.

    Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month. The Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. The sixth epagomenal day is added every four years without exception on August 29 of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day. Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Maskaram, for years between 1901 and 2099 (inclusive), is usually September 11 (Gregorian). It, however, falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year.

    The current year according to the Ethiopian calendar is 2007, which began on September 11, 2014 AD of the Gregorian calendar.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Twelve Tribes of Israel

    This group was founded in 1968 in Jamaica by Dr. Vernon Carrington. Carrington is also referred to as 'the Prophet Gad'. This name is used because Carrington claimed that he was the reincarnation of Gad. Gad had been one of the original sons of Israel, and Carrington felt his role was to reunite the Ten Lost Tribes. Carrington is regarded as the angel discussed in Revelation 7:2. "And I saw another angel coming up from the east with the seal of the living God. He called out in a loud voice to the four angels to whom God had given the power to damage the earth and the sea." Carrington is central to the movement, although he has a number of 'shepherds' to work beneath him, enabling the development and understanding of the group. Twelve Tribes of Israel is considered the most liberal of the Rastafarian groups. Unlike the Bobo Shanti and the Nyahbinghi, the Twelve Tribes believes in the salvation not only of blacks but of all races. Members of the Twelve Tribes can practice their religion in church or from their homes. The group believe themselves to be descendants of the Twelve Sons of Israel. The group exists outside Jamaica in places such as the United States of America, New Zealand, Europe and Africa.

    Aramaic/Arabic/Hebrew Language Translations:

    Akhadhir - To Take, Receive, Accept; Take Away, Punish, Afflict; MAKE A COMPACT

    Ahad - One; Alone

    Alantu - Speaking in Public

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  • Marcus Garvey

    Garvey was a Jamaican-born black nationalist who created a 'Back to Africa' movement in the United States. He became an inspirational figure for later civil rights activists. Marcus Garvey was born in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica on 17 August 1887, the youngest of 11 children. He inherited a keen interest in books from his father, a mason and made full use of the extensive family library. At the age of 14 he left school and became a printer's apprentice where he led a strike for higher wages. From 1910 to 1912, Garvey travelled in South and Central America and also visited London. He returned to Jamaica in 1914 and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). In 1916, Garvey moved to Harlem in New York where UNIA thrived. By now a formidable public speaker, Garvey spoke across America. He urged African-Americans to be proud of their race and return to Africa, their ancestral homeland and attracted thousands of supporters. To facilitate the return to Africa that he advocated, in 1919 Garvey founded the Black Star Line, to provide transportation to Africa, and the Negro Factories Corporation to encourage black economic independence. Garvey also unsuccessfully tried to persuade the government of Liberia in West Africa to grant land on which black people from America could settle. In 1922, Garvey was arrested for mail fraud in connection with the sale of stock in the Black Star Line, which had now failed. Although there were irregularities connected to the business, the prosecution was probably politically motivated, as Garvey's activities had attracted considerable government attention. Garvey was sent to prison and later deported to Jamaica. In 1935, he moved permanently to London where he died on 10 June 1940. In 1964, his body was returned to Jamaica where he was declared the country's first national hero.

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  • Les Amistades

    The Amistad Case, 1839

    When the Spanish cargo schooner La Amistad came aground off the coast of Long Island, New York in August 1839, the United States found itself with an explosive legal and diplomatic case that would pit the American system's ability to provide justice for all on its shores against the federal government's ability to enforce its treaty obligations where the jurisdiction of states is involved. Officers of the United States survey ship Washington found the Amistad in a state of distress, bearing 53 Africans and the two Spaniards who purchased them in Cuba with the intention of trading them into slavery there. The Africans had mutinied, however, and attempted to have the Spanish owners sail them back to Africa. After the American naval officers helped the owners recover control of the ship and arranged for the guarded detention of the Africans in Connecticut, procuring the Africans' freedom became the cause celebre of the burgeoning abolitionist and missionary movement.

    Two lawsuits ensued. The Washington officers brought the first case to federal district court over salvage claims while the second case began in a Connecticut court after the state arrested the Spanish traders on charges of enslaving free Africans. The Spanish foreign minister, however, demanded that the Amistad and its cargo be released from custody and the "slaves" sent to Cuba for punishment by Spanish authorities. While the Van Buren administration accepted the Spanish crown's argument, Secretary of State John Forsyth explained, the president could not order the release of the Amistad and its cargo because the executive could not interfere with the judiciary under American law. He could also not release the Spanish traders from imprisonment in Connecticut because that would constitute federal intervention in a matter of state jurisdiction. Less interested in the separation of powers or the division of sovereignty in a federal state than in procuring immediate satisfaction for the Queen's honor, the Spanish minister retorted that the arrest of Spaniards and the holding of their "Negro property" were violations of the treaty of 1795 between Spain and the United States. Thus, at Forsyth's direction, an attorney for the United States government appeared before the U. S. District Court and presented Spain's argument that since a federally owned ship rescued the Amistad, the United States was obligated by international treaty to return the ship and its cargo to the Spanish owners.

    The district court judge ruled that the Africans were not Spanish slaves, being captured as free men in Africa, and he ordered the U.S. to release them from prison and transport them back to Africa. Rejecting the argument that the Africans were the Spanish traders' private property and their sale subject to salvage claims, the judge ruled that the Washington officers' salvage payments be taken from the remaining cargo of the Amistad. The U.S. Government, feeling pressure from Spain and fearing Southern outcry against the court's advocacy of African freedom, appealed the decision to the Supreme Court. To argue against the U.S. Government for the Africans' freedom, the Christian Missionary Association convinced former President and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams to come out of retirement and face the predominantly southern Supreme Court bench. In a masterpiece of American law, Adams presented the case of the Africans' freedom as a test of the American republic's sincerity in the ideals it espoused abroad. The Supreme Court ruled for the Africans, accepting the argument that they were never citizens of Spain and were illegally taken from Africa where they lived in a state of freedom. The court acknowledged that the United States' argument that it had obligations to Spain under the treaty, but said that the treaty "never could have been intended to take away the equal rights of [the Africans]." The 53 Africans returned to their homeland and the job of resisting Spain and the Spanish Armada for continuing demand payment for damages was relegated as a duty of the incoming Secretary of State, Daniel Webster. This case proved highly effective as determinant purgatory for adjudicating on new cases for the Supreme Court and for the High Courts of America's divided Republic at the time.

    "ONE LOVE - JAH LIVETH - Through the knowledge of this hour":      Read More >>

  • Les Amistades

    The Amistad Case, 1839

    The district court judge ruled that the Africans were not Spanish slaves, being captured as free men in Africa, and he ordered the U.S. to release them from prison and transport them back to Africa. Rejecting the argument that the Africans were the Spanish traders' private property and their sale subject to salvage claims, the judge ruled that the Washington officers' salvage payments be taken from the remaining cargo of the Amistad. The U.S. Government, feeling pressure from Spain and fearing Southern outcry against the court's advocacy of African freedom, appealed the decision to the Supreme Court. To argue against the U.S. Government for the Africans' freedom, the Christian Missionary Association convinced former President and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams to come out of retirement and face the predominantly southern Supreme Court bench. In a masterpiece of American law, Adams presented the case of the Africans' freedom as a test of the American republic's sincerity in the ideals it espoused abroad. The Supreme Court ruled for the Africans, accepting the argument that they were never citizens of Spain and were illegally taken from Africa where they lived in a state of freedom. The court acknowledged that the United States' argument that it had obligations to Spain under the treaty, but said that the treaty "never could have been intended to take away the equal rights of [the Africans]." The 53 Africans returned to their homeland and the job of resisting Spain continued demand for damages passed onto incoming Secretary of State Daniel Webster.

    "ONE LOVE - JAH LIVETH - Through the knowledge of this hour":      Read More >>

  • Les Amistades

    The Amistad Case, 1839

    Two lawsuits ensued. The Washington officers brought the first case to federal district court over salvage claims while the second case began in a Connecticut court after the state arrested the Spanish traders on charges of enslaving free Africans. The Spanish foreign minister, however, demanded that the Amistad and its cargo be released from custody and the "slaves" sent to Cuba for punishment by Spanish authorities. While the Van Buren administration accepted the Spanish crown's argument, Secretary of State John Forsyth explained, the president could not order the release of the Amistad and its cargo because the executive could not interfere with the judiciary under American law. He could also not release the Spanish traders from imprisonment in Connecticut because that would constitute federal intervention in a matter of state jurisdiction. Less interested in the separation of powers or the division of sovereignty in a federal state than in procuring immediate satisfaction for the Queen's honor, the Spanish minister retorted that the arrest of Spaniards and the holding of their "Negro property" were violations of the treaty of 1795 between Spain and the United States. Thus, at Forsyth's direction, an attorney for the United States government appeared before the U. S. District Court and presented Spain's argument that since a federally owned ship rescued the Amistad, the United States was obligated by international treaty to return the ship and its cargo to the Spanish owners.

    "ONE LOVE - JAH LIVETH - Through the knowledge of this hour":      Read More >>

  • Tudor Elizabethian

    Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history. When she became queen in 1558, she was twenty-five years old, a survivor of scandal and danger, and considered illegitimate by most Europeans. She inherited a bankrupt nation, torn by religious discord, a weakened pawn between the great powers of France and Spain. She was only the third queen to rule England in her own right; the other two examples, her cousin Lady Jane Grey and half-sister Mary I, were disastrous. Even her supporters believed her position dangerous and uncertain. Her only hope, they counseled, was to marry quickly and lean upon her husband for support. But Elizabeth had other ideas.

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  • Selassie Guidance

    Elders and deacons may have ended the slave trade in 1808. Although the entire history has not been integrated into a full comprehensive database, it is clear that sentries were sent to Jamaica and Britain by Chiefs in Modern Day Ghana. Apparently, the unification of Tribes in Ghana led to the apparent struggles of slavery ending. Moreover, Equiano - is a clear example of a Sentry being sent to United Kingdom for purposes of freedom promulgation. The UK recruited Black Africans into its brigages.

    "ONE LOVE - JAH LIVETH - Through the knowledge of this hour":      Read More >>






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